Now let’s go back to the reaction towards the prophet’s invitations to Islam; like King Negus, Ja’far Ibn Al-Julanda, king of ‘Oman, also accepted Islam after consulting with his minister and brother ‘Abed. They spent several days thinking and directing their questions about Islam to the prophet’s emissary, until finally, they embraced Islam. Most of the other kings and emperors declined and refused.
- Muqawqas, the Roman’s steward in Egypt demanded more time to think. Although Muqawqas was an Egyptian and the Copts hated the Romans who had oppressed them for a long time, but still, his look at Islam was that of a king who was afraid to lose his kingdom.
- Al-Harith Ibn Abi-Shamir Al-Ghassani, King of Damascus and an ally of the Romans, declared that he would fight against Muslims. He ordered the Muslim emissary to return and tell the prophet that he declares a state of war against the Muslims. Later on when his cousin Shurahbil Ibn ‘Amr Al-Ghassani the governor of Balqa’, caught the prophet’s emissary to the governor of Busra, he had him beheaded. This led to the battle of Mu’tah which was discussed earlier in this text, and the Muslims’ struggle against the Romans’ tyranny and their Arab allies ensued.
- Chosroes, king of Persia, was enraged and he tore the letter saying: “A menial slave from among my subjects dares to write his name before mine.” When the emissary reported this to the prophet P.B.U.H., he said: “May Allah tear down his kingdom.” Chosroes dictated a command to his viceroy in Yemen to send a couple of troopers to arrest the prophet and bring him to his presence. The viceroy, whose name was “Bazan”, sent two strong soldiers to Madinah to arrest the prophet. When they reached Madinah and met the prophet P.B.U.H., they told him that Chosroes has written a message to Bazan ordering him to dispatch someone to arrest Muhammad and bring him to his presence, or the Persians would destroy Madinah. The prophet told them to return the next day concealing from them what he learned through divine revelation about Chosroes and the uprise against him. The next day, when they returned to the prophet P.B.U.H., he informed them that Chosroes had been murdered by his own son who has taken over the throne. They were stunned and said: “Do you understand what you are saying? The king has harbored malice against you for what’s less, do you want us to send him a message telling him what you just said?”
The prophet P.B.U.H. answered them saying: “Yes, tell him about me and say to him that my religion will reach every place Chosroes reached, and will reach where all soles and hoofs have reached. Tell him that if he embraces Islam then I shall keep him the king and ruler of his people.”
They hurried back to Bazan at Yemen and reported to him what has been said. A while later, a message came to Bazan informing him that “Sherweh” has taken over the throne of his father and ordering him to stop any procedures against the Prophet of Arabia till further notice. This was the story of Bazan, and how he and his two soldiers believed in Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H. and together with the Arabs of Yemen embraced Islam, all praises be to Allah.
- Heraclius, the Roman emperor seemed to know through his analysis of the old scriptures that there was a prophet still to come. The Muslim emissary reported that Heraclius showed some inclination towards accepting Islam first, but when his ministers and consultants refused, he declined and decided to fight against the rising power in Arabia which led to an arduous struggle that continued for centuries.
The previous reactions towards the prophet’s messages made it crystal clear that the two major empires would never allow a new power to rise amidst their lands. This meant that war was incumbent upon Muslims. Consequently this period witnessed a lot of intelligence work, scouts and spies were sent from both sides to gather information and make preparations.
Near the end of the 8th year A.H., the pagans violated Al-Hudaibeyah treaty. A tribe named Banu-Bakr from among the allies of the Makkan pagans attacked and killed a dozen or more men and women from among a tribe named Khuza’ah, which was among the allies of Muslims. These two tribes had an old murderous struggle in the past, but they both agreed on Al-Hudaibeyah treaty. Although the people of Khuza’ah were pagans themselves, they trusted Prophet Muhammad to respect the treaty more than they trusted the Makkan pagans. When their people were killed inside Makkah, they resorted to the prophet seeking justice.
When the Makkan pagans learned that Khuza’ah sought Prophet Muhammad’s rescue, they were troubled. Realizing the dangerous consequences that appeared on the horizon, the Makkan leader Abu-Sufyan traveled to Madinah seeking to meet the prophet and apologize for what happened, may he accept to consider the treaty valid, but the Muslims refused. In the next month, Prophet Muhammad rode out from Madinah towards Makkah, leading 10,000 of the companions. This was the time to retrieve Makkah from the hands of those criminals who do not even respect the sanctity of Allah’s sacred mosque.
Without indulging into the details, the Makkan pagans didn’t show much resistance, and the prophet entered Makkah without even taking his sword out of its scabbard. On entering, the prophet showed great modesty. He ordered his companions to show leniency and to assure the Makkans that no harm was going to befall them. When he reached the sacred mosque, he started breaking all of the idols placed around the mosque and his companions did the same. Then the prophet prayed inside the mosque and called on all people to attend, he gave a brief speech glorifying Allah, then he stipulated that all people are equal and that the pre-Islamic customs of taking pride in ancestry should be forsaken. He stipulated that all people are Adam’s progeny and Adam was created from dust. He recited the verse that says: “O mankind, We have created you from males and females, and made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Verily the noblest among you in Allah’s sight are those who are most pious. Verily Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.” [The Qur’an (49:13)], then he asked the Makkans: “O people of Quraish, what is it that you think I’m going to do to you?”
They responded saying: “You have always been a noble brother and the son of a noble brother.” In Arabic this answer is a quick short expression that was used to describe a person descending from a lineage known of its piety and good morals.
The prophet then said: “I can’t but say the same words which Joseph said to his brothers: ‘Let there be no reproach against you today.’ Go your way, you are all free.”
After this, the Islamic call for prayers was raised inside the sacred mosque and Muslims worshipped Allah freely in Makkah without any fear for the first time. Although they had spent days traveling from Madinah to Makkah under the burning sun, they didn’t sleep or have some rest, they stayed their night in the sanctum of the sacred mosque, reciting the Qur’an, praying, praising Allah for His grace and asking His acceptance for their deed. When “Hind Bint-‘Utbah”, the wife of Abu-Sufyan saw them like this, she said to her husband: “I want to pay homage to Muhammad.”
Abu-Sufyan said: “Do you forsake your faith (i.e. polytheism)?”
She said in awe: “I swear I never saw any god being worshipped rightly in this mosque before this day. O I swear that they stayed all night praying, bowing and prostrating.”
After that day, the Makkan pagans started embracing Islam in huge groups willingly, and for the past 1400 years, the Islamic call for prayers has been raised 5 times every day in Makkah declaring that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger. Muslims have since traveled from everywhere to seclude themselves for worship in the valley of Bakkah without the least fear on themselves. What a glorious triumph, but above all, what a magnificent strife.
In order to fully understand, kindly continue reading from the previous posts:
Roots of “JIHAD” Part I Roots of “JIHAD” Part II Roots of “JIHAD” Part III
Roots of “JIHAD” Part IV Roots of “JIHAD” Part V Roots of “JIHAD” Part VI
Written By: Ehab Shawky